Scientific Disciplinary Sector (SSD)
FIS/01 - EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS
II semestre dal Mar 1, 2021 al Jun 11, 2021.
Aim of this course is to introduce the basic concepts of the Special Theory of Relativity and of Quantum Mechanics and their application to Atomic and Nuclear Physics, to enable students to project and develop teaching activities on these subjects at high-school. A part of the course will also be devoted to cover basic and advanced concepts of Thermodynamics. Students should have knowledge of the status of Physics at the end of the 19th century, namely Newton’s laws of motion and theory of universal gravitation, laws of electricity and magnetism as described by Maxwell equations, theory and properties of electromagnetic waves.
- the Zeroth law: thermal and thermodynamic equilibrium; thermodynamic processes; empirical temperature; temperature scales
- the First law: work, heat,internal energy
- the Second law: Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements; equivalence of Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements; Carnot’s theorem; Carnot cycle; absolute thermodynamic temperature; Clausius theorem; entropy and energy degradation
- the Second law: microscopic approach; basic concepts of statistical mechanics; negative absolute temperatures; violation of the Kelvin-Planck statement
- the Second law: order and disorder
- the Third law
- the ideal gas: ideal gas law; ideal gas processes: isobaric, isochoric, isothermal and adiabatic processes; Carnot cycle for the ideal gas
- blackbody radiation and the Planck hypothesis, the photoelectric effect, the Compton effect, particle-like nature of electromagnetic waves, atomic spectra of gases, Bohr’s model of Hydrogen atom, the Stern-Gerlach experiment, intrinsic angular momentum and spin, the exclusion principle and the periodic table, wave-like nature of particles, the De Broglie hypothesis, the Davisson-Germer experiment
- introduction to atomic and nuclear physics
- wave-particle duality, uncertainty principle, wave mechanics
- spin, Pauli principle
- Schroedinger equation, atomic orbitals
THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY
- postulates of Galilean relativity; Galilean velocity transformation equations
- experimental results on the constancy of light speed
- non-Galilean invariance of Maxwell equations
- the Michelson-Morley experiment
- postulate of the special theory of relativity
- Lorentz space-time transformations
- time dilation, simultaniety and causality, length contraction, space-time paradoxes
- relativistic dynamics: linear momentum, kinetic energy, mass-energy equivalence
- space-time quadrivectors
||Four Laws That Drive the Universe
Assessment of student achievements will be performed through an oral discussion (either in English or in Italian, at student's choice) after a written examination (in English) including brief exercises and open questions focused on the subjects treated in the course also with reference to introducing and planning learning paths about the physical phenomena object of the course.
Students should demonstrate that:
- they have understood and are able to critically discuss concepts and knots related to the physical phenomena object of the course
- they are able to use a correct, appropriate and rigorous language
- they are able to introduce and plan learning paths on the physical phenomena object of the course
Exam modality could be modified depending on the coronavirus emergency.