The Course of Medicine is intended to help the student to develop a "forma mentis" considering the medical activity not only as a "technical" contribution to the maintenance and recovery of people's health, but also as a human activity part of the social context with specific legal, economic, ethical and psychologica peculiarities, where the MD fully plays an irreplaceable role.
Alongside this general objective, the teaching of Legal Medicine aims at offering to the future medical practitioners the fundamentl principles of general legal medicine, toxicology, thanatology and forensic genetics as well as legal, bioethical and ethical competencies to properly address specific aspects of the profession, including the problems of medical professional responsibility.
1) Knowledge of the pre-requisites and assumptions of the medical act
2) Definition of the doctor's legal obligations
3) Knowledge of the concepts and the differences between intentional and non-intentional faults of forensic medical interest
4) Knowledge of the relevance of causality in Legal Medicine, discussing the problems of criteriology and methodology in relation to the causation
5) Knowledge of the different types of responsibilities involving the physician in the exercise of the profession: criminal, civil, ordinal, administrative liability
6) Knowledge of the Code of Medical Deontology
7) Knowledge of the relationship between the legality of the medical act and the consent of the person,
8) Knowledge of the meaning of the duty to inform the patient
9) Knowledge of the meaning and limits of the obligation to consent to the medical act
10) To discuss in its multiple aspects the issue of the consent of the person entitled, and, on one hand, to know the codified rules from which the obligation derives, and, on the other hand, to understand the different circumstances in which this problem arises concretely
11) In particular, to evaluate the problem of consent in relation to the competency of the patient and the conditions in which the competency can be legally lost or diminished
12) To discuss the concept of "compulsory" in the field of the health service, with particular reference to vaccinations and other compulsory treatments. To discuss the conditioning of the doctor's behavior in relation to the "state of necessity"
13) Knowledge of mandatory healthcare, such as: Psychiatric TSO, compulsory vaccination, compulsory toxicological analysis etc.
14) To illustrate and discuss the mandatory health care standards of the mentally ill (L 180/78), defining the conditions that make the psychiatric TSO legitimate and clarifying the individual operational stages leading to hospitalization
15) Knowledge of the meaning of the "reporting to the prosecutor’s office", of its characteristics and the conditions that make it mandatory
16) Knowledge of the characteristics and motivations of the professional secrecy for the physician
17) Knowledge of the meaning of "certificate", and of the legal medical aspects associated with medical certification. To distinguish between ideological false certification and material false certification and to illustrate its consequences
18) To illustrate and discuss the importance of the clinical record, distinguishing its functions (clinical, epidemiological, medical-legal, administrative, scientific, etc.). To describe its the characteristics in relation to the specific goals. Evaluate the clinical record in the perspective of professional secrecy and false certification
19) Illustrate and discuss the rules if voluntary abortion (L 194/78), with reference also to specific issues (e.g. interruption before and after the ninety days of gestation, consent of the person, interruption of pregnancy in minors and in patients with limited competency etc.)
20) To explain the duties (under Law 194/78) of the doctor “conscientious objector”
21) Analyzing the problems associated with artificial fertilization, defining its legal and ethical connotations
22) To differentiate from the medical point of view and from the juridical point of view (in terms of responsibility and punishment) the different sexual crimes and the duties of the doctor
23) to illustrate and discuss limits, times and obligations of medical intervention in front of a patient showing evidence of obvious signs of domestic violence
24) To discuss the issue of personal injuries and beatings in penal terms.
25) To know the general characteristics of blunt force and sharp force wounds and to define the methods of their description aimed at identifying the tools that produced them
26) To indicate the general characteristics of the gunshot wounds and to define the modes of description aimed at identifying the weapons that produced them
27) To give the definition of "occupational injury" and "occupational disease"
28) Knowledge of the clinical and medical-legal duties of the first intervention of a physician in front of a corpse
29) Knowledge of the standard methodologies used in the diagnosis of death, in the different medical contexts
30) To identify and evaluate correctly the post mortem signs and their importance for medical and legal purposes
31) To identify the main pieces of evidence on a corpse to define or hypothesize the circumstances and causes of death (in case of natural death or violent death)
32) Knowledge of the differences between the crime of infanticide and the crime of homicide, and of the methods to distinguish the two entities, also in reference to their difference in the penal law
33) To assess the problem of euthanasia under the Italian Penal Code and in the light of the Code of Medical Ethics.
34) Knowledge of the medical and legal issues in organ transplantation
35) Knowledge of the classification of controlled drugs and of the regulations on the prescription of narcotics
36) Knowledge of the recent regulations on drug addiction
37) Knowing the legal and biomedical bases of personal identification and paternity acknowledgement based on the study of DNA polymorphisms
38) Knowledge of issues related to the professional responsibility of the physician in the light of the recent legislation and jurisprudence guidelines.
39) To establish the areas within which the employer's responsibility and the personal responsibility of the physician are set in case of malicious events reported by the patient as a result of diagnostic / therapeutic treatments
40) To define the insurance coverage limits for the professional liability of the physician
Basics of Criminal and Civil Law
Nexus of material causality
Survey coroner and judicial autopsy
Cause injury: blunt, to stab, gunshot
Crimes against individual safety: Personal injury
Crimes against life: murder and infanticide, crimes related to suicide, "euthanasia"
special laws: L.194 / 78; L.66 / 96
The national health service and the social protection system
Work injury and occupational disease.
Foundations and justification of medical procedures
The obligatory health treatment
Investigation of death
Disclosure of the doctor: report and reporting the crime.
Certificates and medical records
Family law: filiation and ascertainment of paternity
The medical professional liability
The concept of harm to the person