Scientific Disciplinary Sector (SSD)
BIO/14 - PHARMACOLOGY
The teaching is organized as follows:
Educational objective of the Course of Pharmacology is that students will acquire, through the analysis of the mechanisms of drug action, the ability to consider the drug as a tool to modulate cellular functions directly, or indirectly through activation of compensatory responses, and change the state of health of the patient. The student will be urged to make use of his/her knowledge of physiology and pathology in order to understand how the molecular and cellular mechanism of drug action determines the main therapeutic effect and the side- effects. The student will also be brought to understand that the size and quality of the effects, both desired and undesired, are a function of plasma concentration through the analysis of the pharmacokinetic, and as dose regimen should be adjusted according to the characteristics and liver - kidney functionality of the patient. The course will also teach the student, in an integrated vision, about the knowledge of the characteristics (mechanisms of action, kinetic, adverse reactions, therapeutic use) of different pharmacological classes, with particular reference to the application in dentistry.
Definitions of drug, placebo, medicinal product, packaging, pharmaceutical formulations.
Brief notes on the process of introduction of drugs on the market.
Pharmacodynamics: pharmacological potency, pharmacological effects, clinical effectiveness
Pharmacodynamics: definition of receptor, examples of mechanisms of action. Agonists, antagonists.
Pharmacokinetics: definition and overview of the processes.
The process of absorption and administration routes with advantages and disadvantages.
The process of distribution, plasma protein binding, blood-brain and placental barriers
Pharmacokinetics: drug metabolism the cytochrome P-450, phase I and II metabolism. Factors that may affect the metabolism.
Elimination of drugs: the kidney and other routes of elimination, factors that affect the process of elimination.
Study of blood levels of the drugs. Main pharmacokinetic parameters.
Definition of dose, dosage, treatment duration.
Adverse drug reactions
Interactions among drugs
Classification of drugs: the therapeutic categories
Antibacterial and disinfectant
Autonomic nervous system drugs: anticholinergic, antiadrenergic, sympatholytic
Medicines for the respiratory system: bronchodilators, mucolytic, antitussive
Medicines to control blood pressure
Cardiovascular drugs and antiarrhythmic
Psychopharmacological: antidepressants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics, opioid analgesics
Drugs and substances of abuse
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The oral exam consists of a series of questions concerning the main parts of the program related to Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacotherapy, in particular on topics of relevance for the CdL. Some clinical cases will be briefly discussed to assess student's logical reasoning.
The student must demonstrate both the learning of the topics taught in class and the ability to expose them in a formal manner. The oral exam lasts about 30 minutes.