Scientific Disciplinary Sector (SSD)
FIS/07 - APPLIED PHYSICS
LEZIONI 1° SEMESTRE dal Oct 2, 2017 al Dec 21, 2017.
The course aims to give students basic concepts regarding the main physical quantities of Kinematics, Dynamics, the static, the fluid dynamics, optics, thermodynamics and electrology in order to cope with simple physics problems of biomedical interest. The student awareness of the benefits and risks associated with the use of x-ray machines and the obligations under the Employer and the Medical Practitioner required by current law on radiation protection.
1 Introductory elements
(Minimum knowledge) Numerical approximations. Properties of measuring instruments: flow rate, readiness, sensitivity, precision. Systematic and random measurement errors.
(Minimum knowledge quickly reviewed) Flat and solid angles. Integral concept. Scalar and vector quantities. Vector calculation elements (sum, subtraction, scalar product, vector product). Graphic and analytical method.
2 - Mechanics
(Minimum knowledge) Physical quantities, dimensional analysis, coherent systems of measurement units. Scalar and vector speed, average and instantaneous. Tangential and radial acceleration. Hour law, Equation of the trajectory. Rectilinear and circular uniform motion. Uniformly accelerated motion. Periodic, harmonic motion.
The three laws of dynamics. Force and measure of official and practical measures. Amount of motion and impulse of a force. Work and Energy. Kinetic energy theorem. Potential energy, principle of conservation of mechanical energy. Gravitational force, elastic forces. Friction force.
Moment of a force and a couple of forces. Moment of inertia. Angular momentum. Center of Massa. Conditions of equilibrium of rigid bodies.
Mechanical and technological properties of Hooke's law materials.
Analysis of the static balance of some real structures of medical interest.
3 - Fluids
Definition of pressure, official and practical units of measure. Sphygmomanometer. Pascal's law, Stevino's law, Archimedes's principle. Ideal fluid, Bernoulli's theorem. Venturi effect. Definition and unit of measurement of viscosity. Poiseuille's Law, Hydraulic Resistance. Exercises and Applications in the Circulatory System. Flow in laminar and vortex regime, Reynolds number. Cardiac work.
(Possible) Surface Tension, Capillarity, Diffusion.
4 - Electrology
(Minimum knowledge) Electric charge, definitions and units of measurement. Coulomb's law. Electric field, Energy, Electric potential. Definition and unit of measurement.
Ohm's law, Joule law, series and parallel resistors, circuits in c.c. Electric power.
Electric dipole, dipolar layer, Potential produced by a depolarization front. Capacitance, capacitors in series and in parallel. RC circuits.
5 - Thermology and Thermodynamics
The temperature, the heat, the heat capacity, the specific heat. Definitions and units of measurement. Thermometer and temperature scales. First principle of thermodynamics. Heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation. Evaporation. Equation of state of perfect gases. Isothermal, Adiabatic, Isobar, Isocore transformations. Second principle of thermodynamics. Entropy. Enthalpy.
6 - Radiation Protection
X-ray production for fluorescence and for braking. ElettronVolt, definition and use. X-ray interaction with matter: Photoelectric effect, Compton effect, Couple production. X1/2.
Dosimetry and measurement unit: Absorbed dose, Equivalent dose, Effective dose. Roentgen, rad, Gray rem, Sievert, Stochastic and Deterministic effects. The three principles of radiation protection. Outline of current legislation.
|Borsa F., Scannicchio D.
The exam consists of passing a written test with simple exercises and an oral exam aimed at acquiring further evaluation elements