Scientific Disciplinary Sector (SSD)
FIS/01 - EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS
Secondo semestre dal Mar 7, 2022 al Jun 10, 2022.
The course aims to provide the tools for the understanding of electromagnetism and optics phenomena in classical physics, from the basic physical principles to the methodologies for applying the physical laws to the solution of problems. At the end of the course the student will: - have to demonstrate knowledge and understanding in applied contexts of the foundations that make up the functioning of an electromagnetic physical system; - have the ability to apply the acquired knowledge and have understanding skills to model aspects of an electromagnetic physical problem or parts of a device; - know how to interpret the physical meaning of a measurement acquired with optoelectronic instruments; - have the ability to broaden the knowledge to deepen topics of electromagnetism in an autonomous way.
- ELECTROSTATICS IN VACUUM
Experimental facts. Electric charge. Structure of matter. Coulomb law. Electric field E. Work of the electric field. Electrostatic potential energy and electrostatic potential. Flux of the field E. Gauss law and applications. Discontinuities of the electric field. Differential equations of the electric field. Poisson and Laplace equations.
- ELECTROSTATICS IN CONDUCTORS
Conductors in equilibrium. Electrostatic induction. Electrostatic surface pressure. Cavity in a conductor. Electrostatic screening. Capacity. Capacitors.
- ELECTROSTATICS IN DIELECTRICS
Electric dipole. Dipole in external field E. Energy of a dipole. Uniform / non-uniform polarization. Linear dielectrics. Electrostatics equations in dielectrics. Field D "electric displacement".
- ELECTROSTATIC ENERGY
system of charges, system of conductors. Energy of a capacitor in vacuum and in dielectric media. Energy of the electric field. Motion of charges in electric field.
- ELECTRICAL CURRENTS
Electric current, electromotive force. Classical theory of electrical conduction. Continuity equation for the charge.
Ohm law, joule effect, resistors. Kirchoff laws, elementary circuits. Charge / discharge of a capacitor.
- MAGNETOSTATIC IN VACUUM
Experimental facts. Magnetic field B, F of Lorentz, II law of Laplace. Motion of charges in magnetic field. Hall effect, measure of B. Magnetic dipole. Dipole in external field B. Field B of stationary currents. Circulation Ampère law and applications. Discontinuities of the magnetic field. I law of Laplace. Field B of a moving charge. Solenoidal fields, concatenated flux. Differential equations of the magnetic field.
- TIME-VARYING FIELDS
Electromagnetic induction - experimental facts, flux law. Induced electric field and Faraday law. Lenz law. Energy balance. Mutual Inductance. Self-inductance, inductances. RL circuit.
Magnetic energy: intrinsic energy of the current, system of stationary currents. Energy of the magnetic field.
Maxwell equations in integral and local form. Displacement current and Ampère-Maxwell law. Radiation of a circuit.
- ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
Recalls on waves: transverse waves, longitudinal waves, harmonic wave, plane waves, spherical waves. D'Alembert wave equation. Maxwell equations in vacuum and the solution of e.m waves. Polarization. Speed of light, energy transported, intensity. Polarization. Electromagnetic spectrum. Principles of Optics.
To pass the examination the students have to demonstrate:
- knowledge and understanding of the principles and the physical phenomena of classical electromagnetism
- to possess critical skills in the observation of electrical and magnetic phenomena with scientific method and adequate mathematical formalism
- to know how to apply the principles and the laws of physics to the different contexts for solving problems of electromagnetism.
Written examination (2 hours):
The exam includes
1) electromagnetism exercises (related to the exercises program carried out);
2) theory questions (related to the entire program).
Optional oral examination:
on the topics of the course program