The teaching is organized as follows:
INF VR - 1° anno 1° sem
INF VR - 1° anno 1° sem
The course aims at providing the knowledge of biology, biochemistry and genetics necessary for the understanding of physiological and pathological processes related to health and disease of individuals in different life ages. Biological and biochemical knowledge will contribute to the acquisition of skills aimed at promoting the adoption of practices that improve people’s health and nursing care.
By the end of the course, students will have acquired:
- basic knowledge of organic chemistry and biochemistry on the structure-function relationships of the main classes of biological macromolecules, on the metabolic regulation at the molecular level and on the energy level changes associated to different biochemical pathways;
- knowledge of cellular and genetic biology related to the structural, functional and molecular characteristics of the cell; understanding of genomics knowledge applications to medicine.
This knowledge will allow to understand cellular processes common to all living organisms and in particular the basic mechanisms that regulate metabolic activity, reproduction and cellular interactions and the mechanisms of genetic disease transmission in humans.
- Organic chemistry: nomenclature of organic compounds and recognition of functional groups.
- Carbohydrates: monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides.
- Proteins: amino acids, protein structure levels, peptide bond, allosteric regulation.
- Enzymes: Classification of enzymes, active site, specificity and isoenzymes, regulation of enzyme activity.
- Lipids: lipids and their functions, phospholipids, terpenes, cholesterol, lipoproteins.
- Introduction to metabolism: catabolism and anabolism, ATP and phosphocreatine, coenzymes redox, redox reactions, metabolic pathways and regulation, coupled reactions, signs of metabolism genetic defects.
- Carbohydrate metabolism: glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, alcoholic and lactic fermentation, Krebs cycle, gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis and glycogen synthesis, hormone regulation, diabetes mellitus.
- Oxidative phosphorylation: mitochondrial respiratory chain, electron transport, ATP synthase.
- Lipid metabolism: beta-oxidation of fatty acids, lipid biosynthesis, fatty acid synthase, cholesterol metabolism.
- Metabolism of proteins and amino acids: transamination and oxidative deamination, glucose-alanine cycle, urea cycle.
MM: EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY
- Characteristics of the living beings. Origin of life and evolution. Cell Theory.
- Water: characteristics and biological importance.
- Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell. Structure, function and organization of the cell.
- Roles and functions of the cell memebrane. Transport of molecules across cell membrane. Cell junctions.
- Cell signalling.
- Cell cycle. Mitosis and Meiosis. Cell death.
- Organisation of DNA in chromosome. Chromatin and chromosome structure and composition.
- Chromosomes and heredity. Normal and abnormal human karyotypes.
- Molecular basis of genetic information: DNA structure, function, replication and role in heredity.
- Definition of gene. Human genome and DNA mutation.
- Informational pathway: transcription, RNA processing, genetic code, mRNA translation and protein synthesis.
- Modes of transmission of hereditary characters and Mendel’s laws. Pedigree drawing.
- Genetic diseases. Somatic mutations and cancer.
- Genomics in medicine.
The exam consists of 2 written tests, one for each module, to be passed simultaneously, based on all the issues covered throughout the course. In order to gain access to the biology test, students must have first discharged any training debts relating to the minimum biology knowledge.
To pass the exam, students must get a positive evaluation in both tests in the same exam and a global score of not less than 18/30. The final mark (/out of 30) will derive from the weighted average over credits of each single test score. Students can retire or refuse the proposed score and take the whole exam later.
|Catani et all
||Appunti di biochimica
|Roberti, Antognelli, Bistocchi, Talesa
||Biochimica e Biologia per le professioni sanitarie
|Reece, Urry, Cain, Wasserman, Minorsky, Jackson
||Campbell - Biologia e Genetica
|M. Samaja, R. Paroni
||Chimica e Biochimica
|Solomon, Martin, Martin, Berg
||Elementi di Biologia
|Sadava, Hillis, Craig Heller, Hacker
||Elementi di Biologia e Genetica