Scientific Disciplinary Sector (SSD)
M-EDF/01 - PHYSICAL TRAINING SCIENCES AND METHODOLOGY
I semestre dal Oct 2, 2017 al Jan 26, 2018.
Biomechanics is concerned with the mechanical / anatomical bases of human movement. An interdisciplinary approach is used in which materials from anatomy, physiology and physics (mechanics) are integrated. Quantitative and qualitative biomechanical analyses of human movement are studied from the perspective of kinematic and kinetic descriptions of multi-segment motion. These external phenomena are used to estimate internal muscle mechanics and joint loading. The purpose of this course is to introduce students to concepts of mechanics as they apply to human movement. The student should gain an understanding of the mechanical and anatomical principles that govern human motion and develop the ability to link the structure of the human body with its function from a mechanical perspective, with particular attention to pathological conditions and changes across one lifespan. At the completion of this course it is desired that each student be able to: 1) describe motion with precise, well-defined mechanical and bio-mechanical terminology; 2) understand and quantify linear and angular characteristics of motion; 3) understand the quantitative relationships between angular and linear motion characteristics of a rotating body; 4) understand and quantify the cause and effect of force, linear and angular kinetic of human movement; 5) interpret and analyze the kinematic, kinetic parameters and muscle activation of normal and pathological gait; 6) evaluate the biomechanical properties of common movement task either in healthy and pathological conditions.
• Short review of math and physics: trigonometric functions, force, vector algebra, moment / torque.
• Anthropometry: density, segment mass, center of mass, moment of inertia, radius of gyration, use of anthropometrics tables.
• Linear and Angular Kinematics: linear velocity & acceleration, differentiation of kinematic data; joint angles, joint angular velocity, joint angular acceleration.
• Linear and angular Kinetics: Newton’s Laws, Link segment model, type of forces, joint force, joint torque.
• Statics/Equilibrium: conditions for equilibrium, levers and pulleys, applications of statics to biomechanics, joint and muscle forces in static condition.
• Posture: biomechanics of standing, joint mechanics during standing, equilibrium conditions during standing; biomechanics of toppling; biomechanics of anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments, abnormal posture: pathologies and postural deficits.
• Friction: physic of friction, biomechanics of friction in human movement, slipping.
• Inverse Dynamics
• Impulse & Momentum: linear and angular impulse, linear and angular momentum, applications to human movement.
• Work - Energy - Power: definition of work, energy and power, work, energy and power in linear motion, work, energy and power in angular motion.
• Muscle Mechanics: mechanical properties, force-Length relationship, force-Velocity and Torque-Velocity relationships, muscle stiffness.
• Gait: spatial-temporal parameters of gait, kinematic of gait, kinetic of gait, muscles intervention during gait cycle, pathological gait.
• Reaching/Pointing: Biomechanics of reaching and pointing movements, reaching and pointing in pathological conditions.
• Common movement tasks in clinical assessment: gait initiation, stair ascending and descending, landing, seat & stand
• Descriptive statistics, t-test, linear regression with spreadsheet (e.g. Excel)
• Balance Board
• Linear and angular kinematics
• Statics and Equilibrium, forearm and lower limb examples
• Posture, CoP and toppling example
• Lifting, internal torques
• Lifting EMG
• Inverse Dynamic, Ankle joint example
• Ground reaction forces during normal and abnormal gait
• Students’ project
• Biomechanics in Clinic and Research. Author: Jim Richards. Churchill Livingstone.
• Biomeccanica: Introduzione alle misure strumentali di postura e movimento. Autore: Filadelfio Puglisi. Marrapese Editore.
• Material provided by the teacher.
• Suggested scientific articles.
• Biomechanics and motor control of human movement. Author: David A. Winter. Wiley
• Research methods in biomechanics. Authors: Robertson et al. Human Kinetics.
• Biomechanical Analysis of Fundamental Human Movements: Author: Arthur Chapman. Human Kinetics.
• Gait analysis: normal and pathological function. Autore: Perry et al. Thorofare (New Jersey): Slack.
Gait Inverse Dynamic Project (GP) 20%
Laboratory Project (LP) 30%
Final Exam (FE) 50%
Gait Inverse dynamic Project will be explained and assigned to the students after the lectures about “inverse dynamic”.
Laboratory Project will be assigned at the end of laboratory classes. Students will work on the project as a group (5-6 people) during the 10th to 16th laboratory class. The details of the projects will be given during laboratory classes.
Final exam will consist on a Written Test and an Oral Exam.
• The written test will evaluate the capability to apply the logical and mathematical principles of the topics covered at the lectures.
• The written test will contain 30 multiple-choice questions.
• Each question will have a score from 1 to 3 for a total of 45 points. Incorrect and missing answers will have a score of 0.
• The written test grade will be obtained by dividing the test score by 1.5 (45/30)
• The admission to the Oral Exam requires ≥18/30 at the Written Test.
• The only admission to the Oral Exam does not guarantee to pass the Final Exam.
• It will consist in an oral discussion aimed to evaluate:
- Insightful understanding of course theoretical concepts;
- Use of proper terminology;
- Competency to translate the theoretical concepts to practical settings;
• The student is free to taking the Oral Exam either in Italian or English.
• Taking the Oral Exam in English will assign a Bonus of 1.5 points.
Final grade will be assigned as follows:
(GPx20 + LPx30 + FEx50)/(20+30+50)+English Bonus
N.B. Minimal requirement to pass the entire course: 18/30 in each part (i.e. GP,LP,FE)
Biomechanics of Human Movement Programma
(pdf, it, 82 KB, 08/10/17)
Biomechanics of Human Movement Syllabus
(pdf, en, 83 KB, 08/10/17)
Dropbox Link Lectures and Labs
(pdf, en, 6 KB, 12/10/17)
(xlsx, it, 76 KB, 11/10/17)