Studying at the University of Verona

Here you can find information on the organisational aspects of the Programme, lecture timetables, learning activities and useful contact details for your time at the University, from enrolment to graduation.

Academic calendar

The academic calendar shows the deadlines and scheduled events that are relevant to students, teaching and technical-administrative staff of the University. Public holidays and University closures are also indicated. The academic year normally begins on 1 October each year and ends on 30 September of the following year.

Academic calendar

Course calendar

The Academic Calendar sets out the degree programme lecture and exam timetables, as well as the relevant university closure dates..

Definition of lesson periods
Period From To
1st Semester Oct 1, 2009 Jan 31, 2010
2nd Semester Mar 1, 2010 Jun 15, 2010
Exam sessions
Session From To
Sessione straordinaria Feb 1, 2010 Feb 28, 2010
Sessione estiva Jun 16, 2010 Jul 31, 2010
Sessione autunnale Sep 1, 2010 Sep 30, 2010
Degree sessions
Session From To
Sessione autunnale Oct 22, 2009 Oct 22, 2009
Sessione straordinaria Dec 16, 2009 Dec 16, 2009
Sessione invernale Mar 25, 2010 Mar 25, 2010
Sessione estiva Jul 16, 2010 Jul 16, 2010
Period From To
Festa di Ognissanti Nov 1, 2009 Nov 1, 2009
Festa dell'Immacolata Concezione Dec 8, 2009 Dec 8, 2009
Vacanze Natalizie Dec 21, 2009 Jan 6, 2010
Vacanze Pasquali Apr 2, 2010 Apr 6, 2010
Festa della Liberazione Apr 25, 2010 Apr 25, 2010
Festa del Lavoro May 1, 2010 May 1, 2010
Festa del Santo Patrono di Verona S. Zeno May 21, 2010 May 21, 2010
Festa della Repubblica Jun 2, 2010 Jun 2, 2010
Vacanze Estive Aug 9, 2010 Aug 15, 2010

Exam calendar

Exam dates and rounds are managed by the relevant Science and Engineering Teaching and Student Services Unit.
To view all the exam sessions available, please use the Exam dashboard on ESSE3.
If you forgot your login details or have problems logging in, please contact the relevant IT HelpDesk, or check the login details recovery web page.

Exam calendar

Should you have any doubts or questions, please check the Enrolment FAQs

Academic staff

Foto Maurizio Boselli,  October 19, 2013

Boselli Maurizio 045 6835628

Capitello Roberta 045 802 8488

Drago Nicola 045 802 7081

Ferrarini Roberto 045/6835626

Gaeta Davide Nicola Vincenzo 045 683 5632

Gnaccarini Claudio

Guantieri Valeria 045/6835625

Guerriero Massimo

Pandolfini Tiziana 045 802 7918

Pezzotti Mario +39045 802 7951

Pii Youry

Speghini Adolfo +39 045 8027900

Torriani Sandra 045 802 7921

Varanini Zeno 0458027830

Violoni Manuela

Study Plan

The Study Plan includes all modules, teaching and learning activities that each student will need to undertake during their time at the University. Please select your Study Plan based on your enrolment year.

Legend | Type of training activity (TTA)

TAF (Type of Educational Activity) All courses and activities are classified into different types of educational activities, indicated by a letter.

SPlacements in companies, public or private institutions and professional associations

Teaching code





Sandra Torriani



Scientific Disciplinary Sector (SSD)


The teaching is organized as follows:





II semestre, I semestre

Academic staff

Sandra Torriani





II semestre, I semestre

Academic staff

Sandra Torriani

Learning outcomes

The course will introduce general principles on the structure, physiology, biochemistry, genetic, and ecology of microorganisms with the ultimate goal to understand their growth and survival strategies, and to avoid uncontrolled microbial proliferation. Basic microbiological techniques will be presented, as well as the most advanced methods for the characterization of microorganisms.
The course will provide the instruments needed to acquire theoretical and practical skill on the biotechnological aspects of fermentation and transformation of must and wine, and on the stability of the final product. These skills are of great importance to understand, manage, and optimize the activities of yeasts and bacteria in relation to the characteristics of the must and the wine to be obtained, as well as of the productive process applied.

Laboratory exercises are designed to acquire manual ability in the application of classical and innovative microbiological methods.


Part I. General microbiology. Historical development of microbiology. The cell: general concepts, the distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Morphology and cytology of the microbial cell. Structures and functions of prokaryotic cell: cell wall, capsule, flagella, cytoplasmic membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, ribosomes, reserve materials, bacterial genome. The bacterial spore.
Microbial nutrition. Cultural techniques, techniques of selection and isolation. The micro-organisms and the environment: responses to temperature change, oxygen tension, pH, and water activity. Kinetics of microbial growth. Control of microorganisms by physical and chemical agents.
The microbial metabolism. The aerobic and anaerobic respiration. The main fermentations.
Overview of microbial genetics. The genetic information in bacteria: bacterial chromosome, plasmids and transposons. Mutations: selection and identification of mutants. Horizontal transfer of genetic information between bacteria: transformation, conjugation, and transduction. Production of recombinant bacteria. Viruses. The bacteriophages: lytic cycle and lysogeny.
Classification of microorganisms. The concept of species. Classical and molecular taxonomy. Groups of microorganisms.

Part II. Wine Microbiology. The microorganisms of oenological interest: yeasts and bacteria in winemaking. The yeasts: classification, metabolism, reproduction, genetics. The must as a substrate for microbial development. The alcoholic and malolactic fermentations. The principal and secondary products of fermentation. The lactic acid bacteria: definition and classification. The malolactic fermentation: effects on the sensory characteristics and the wholesomeness of wines. Other microorganisms of oenological interest: acetic acid bacteria and mould. Wine spoilage of microbial origin. Definition and characteristics of spoilage microorganisms. Production of biogenic amines, etilcarbammate and ochratoxin.
Microbial ecology: the spontaneous fermentation of grape must. The controlled fermentations. Starter cultures of yeasts and malolactic bacteria for wine. Clonal selection of yeasts, genetic improvement, selection of technological and qualitative characteristics, autolytic capacity. Clonal selection of malolactic bacteria, selection of technological and qualitative characteristics. Use of microbial inoculants in oenology. Working conditions, induction / arrest of alcoholic fermentation. Microbial interactions and wine quality. Methods for the isolation, identification and technological characterization of yeasts and malolactic bacteria. Traditional methods. Direct and indirect rapid methods. Molecular techniques.

Part I. General Microbiology.
The microbiology laboratory: tools and equipments. Introduction to the basic microbiological techniques (culture media preparation, sterilization techniques, pure culture method, serial dilutions).
Research of specific microbial groups in samples of different origin.
Plate counts. Pour plate and spread plate.
Observation at the optical microscopy of wet samples.
Simple and differential staining of microorganisms.
Identification of microorganisms through miniaturized systems.

Part II. Wine Microbiology.
Microscopy observations of the microorganisms of oenological interest (elliptical and apiculate yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, acetic bacteria, moulds).
Analysis of the microbiological quality of yeast starter cultures. Isolation of yeasts.
Technological and physiological tests on yeast isolates.
Extraction of DNA, and genetic typing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Microvinification tests and monitoring of malolactic fermentation.

Examination Methods

The examination will consist of a written and / or oral evaluation of the degree of learning achieved on the program done, both theoretical and practical.
There will be 2 written tests (Test 1 - General Microbiology, Test 2 - Wine Microbiology) and a final oral examination.

Type D and Type F activities

Modules not yet included

Career prospects

Module/Programme news

News for students

There you will find information, resources and services useful during your time at the University (Student’s exam record, your study plan on ESSE3, Distance Learning courses, university email account, office forms, administrative procedures, etc.). You can log into MyUnivr with your GIA login details.



As stated in point 25 of the Teaching Regulations for the A.Y. 2021/2022, attendance is mandatory for practical and laboratory activities, unless otherwise determined by the Teaching Committee.
Please refer to the Crisis Unit's latest updates for the mode of teaching.

Career management

Area riservata studenti