Scientific Disciplinary Sector (SSD)
MED/07 - MICROBIOLOGY AND CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY
Language of instruction
Lezioni 2° semestre 1°- 5° anno dal Feb 18, 2019 al May 31, 2019.
The course focuses on basic and applied aspects of Bacteriology, Virology, Mycology, and Parassitology, and helps students to acquire essential information about:
1) the peculiarity of structure and function of microrganisms, as related to the origin and evolution of infectious diseases
2) the pathogenesis of infectious diseases and the conceptual basis of immunotherapy and vaccines
3) the mechanisms of action of antimicrobial agents and the conceptual basis of antimicrobial therapy
4) the role of specific microrganisms in human diseases
5) the methods for diagnosis of infectious diseases
• GOALS AND ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF THE MICROBIOLOGY COURSE.
• HISTORY OF MICROBIOLOGY.
• GENERAL BACTERIOLOGY.
• The distinctive features of the Prokaryotes.
• Principles of bacterial taxonomy.
• Morphology and functional organization of the bacterial cell.
• Gram staining.
• Cell wall structure and function in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
• Synthesis of the peptidoglycan
• Structure and function of the plasmatic membranes. Trans-membrane transport systems.
• The cytoplasm, the cytoplasm inclusions and the bacterial ribosomes.
• Structure and function of facultative bacterial cell components: fimbriae, pili, capsule.
• Structure and function of the spores. Sporogenesys and germination.
• Bacterial genetics.
• The bacterial metabolism.
• Fermentation in bacteria.
• Nutritional requirements in bacteria.
• Culture media in Bacteriology.
• The bacterial growth at both cellular and population level.
• Pathogenesis of bacterial infections.
• Infections in the human organism: transmission, colonization, penetration, diffusion, evasion of defence mechanisms.
• Direct and indirect damages.
• Endotoxins and septic shock.
• Morphological and structural features. Cultivation, pathogenesis of the related diseases, laboratory identification, prophylaxis, antibiotic susceptibility
• Staphylococci. Differential features of S. aureus, S. epidermidis and others coagulase-negative staphylococci.
• Streptococci. Differential features of S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. pneumonia.
• Bordetella pertussis.
• Enterobacteriaceae. Differential features E. coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Proteus spp., Yersinia spp., Klebsiella spp.
• Neisseriae. Differential features of N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae.
• Spirochetae. Differential features of the genera Treponema, Borrelia, and Leptospira.
• Pseudomonas and other non-fermenting Gram-negatives.
• Vibrio cholerae.
• Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter.
• Legionella pneumophila.
• Chlamidiae and Mycoplasma.
• Bartonellae and Rickettsiae.
• The anaerobes. Differential features of C. tetani, C. botulinum, gas-gangrene clostridia, Bacteroides and other Gram-negative anaerobes.
• Mycobacteria. Differential features of M. tuberculosis, non-tubercular mycobacteria, M. leprae.
• THE ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS.
• Classification, chemical structure and mechanism of action of agents acting at the level of the peptidoglycan synthesis, the protein synthesis, the DNA replication, and the plasmatic membrane.
• Mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactams and to glycopeptides in Gram-positive bacteria.
• Mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactams in Gram-negative bacteria.
• Mechanisms of resistance to macrolides, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones.
• Methods for testing the in-vitro activity of antibiotics.
• INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF MYCOLOGY.
• General features, structure and function of the main components of the fungal cell.
• Fungal metabolism and growth. Fungal reproduction.
• Morphology, ecology, pathogenicity, virulence, and laboratory diagnosis of the most important fungi of human interest.
• The yeasts: differential features of Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis.
• The filamentous fungi. Differential features of Aspergillus and Dermatophytes.
• Dimorphic fungi: Histoplasma, Coccidioides, Blastomyces and Sporotrix. Zygomicetes.
• Mechanism of action of the antifungal drugs and methods for testing their activity in vitro.
• GENERAL VIROLOGY.
• Chemical composition and structure of viruses.
• The classification of viruses and the general features of the principal viruses of human interest.
• The viral multiplication. Attachment, entry, uncoating, replicative strategies, viral synthesis, assembly, and release phase.
• Cultivation and titration of viruses. In-vitro cytopathic effects.
• Viral persistence.
• Mechanisms of antiviral defences.
• Host-virus interaction.
• Specific and non-specific defence mechanisms.
• SYSTEMATIC VIROLOGY.
• Morphological and structural features. Cultivation, pathogenesis of the related diseases, laboratory identification, prophylaxis, susceptibility to antiviral drugs.
• Papovaviruses and Parvoviruses (Bocaviruses).
• Polioviruses, Coxsackieviruses, Rhinoviruses.
• Rotaviruses, Caliciviruses, Astroviruses.
• Hepatitis viruses: HAV and HBV.
• Hepatitis viruses: HCV, HDV and HEV.
• Orthomyxoviruses. Influenza viruses.
• Paramyxovirus. Mumps, Measles, RSV.
• Flaviviruses .
• Rubella virus.
• Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs)
• HIV and AIDS.
• Oncogenic viruses and cancer.
• General classification of the antiviral agents. Chemical features and mechanism of action of the inhibitors of entry, uncoating, viral synthesis, assembly, and release phase.
• GENERAL PARASSITOLOGY.
• Definition of parasitism.
• Host-parasite interaction in the genesis of a parasitosis.
• Biological cycles. Epidemiology of parasites.
• Role of the immune system.
• SYSTEMATIC PARASSITOLOGY.
• Intestinal infections caused by protozoa: epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic aspects of the infections sustained by Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Cryptosporidium spp.
• Intestinal infestations from helminths: epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic aspects of the infestations sustained from: Enterobius vermicularis, Stronglyloides stercoralis, Taenia spp.
• Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH).
• Epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic aspects of the infestations sustained by Toxoplasma gondii, Trichomonas vaginalis, Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma spp.
• Malaria: epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic aspects of the infections sustained by Plasmodium spp.
• FUNDAMENTALS OF VACCINOLOGY
|Murray, Rosenthal, Pfaller
||Principi di Microbiologia Medica
|Antonelli, Clementi, Pozzi, Rossolini
||Principi di Microbiologia Medica
|| Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
One oral test.
The test will basically focus on 2-3 topics from distinct areas of General, Systematic, and/or Clinical Microbiology.
The final vote will be the average of the evaluations received in the aforementioned topics.