The evolution in terms of quality and the simultaneous decline in consumption of wine, have imposed a substantial modification of the technical-cultivation of the vineyards. It was therefore tried to put in place at various levels, technical-scientific and practical, a model of viticulture compatible with the characteristics of the sites of cultivation, in which it is necessary to the minimum of external inputs to achieve the highest possible quality levels in relation to the environmental vocation. The decision-making process that, through knowledge and parameterization of environmental characteristics, has led to the development of vineyards in harmony with the environment, both from a design point of view, both management, has determined, in turn, the establishment of plants less demanding in terms of water and nutrition and in any case where the vegetative-productive development was connected with the characteristics of the wines. Viticulture, in many cases, has become an instrument of protection and restoration of environmental balance, being able to attribute to it today not only the productive function, but also conservation and environmental protection.
The course presents the different growing techniques in viticulture, examines the problems and effects on productivity and quality. In particular, the course examines how plant the vineyard, the different forms of vine training and pruning systems, techniques of soil management of vineyards, the techniques of irrigation, the mineral nutrition of the grapevine, particular reference to the systems of fertilization to soil and foliar, the canopy management and methods of harvest.
Lectures (4 CFU). The course of management of the vineyard provides a part of lectures in which are discussed the various issues that concern the operational choices and procedures for the execution of the agronomic techniques in the vineyard. The course initially presents ways to develop a sustainable viticulture. It considers how to implant the vineyard. In fact the design and subsequent plant operations are of crucial importance for the success of a vineyard in time and to do this we must start from the choice of the site that provides a perfect knowledge of the ecological factors taken into consideration by evaluating the characteristics of the land, upon the position, exposure and slope, depth, texture and soil structure, in addition to the chemical composition. These concepts follows the treatment of soil preparation: leveling and excavation; burglary; refinement of the terrain. The discussion follows with a description of the systems drained and fertilizing bottom preimplantation. Also presented are the various provisions of the rows (rittochino, cavalcapoggio, Girapoggio, variable geometry), because the adoption of certain plant density. These arguments follow those relating to the choice of material for propagation of the vine (variety and rootstocks), methods for plants, materials for the construction of the vineyard. Other topics covered during the course are pruning (agronomic and physiological foundations), the concepts of minimal pruning and crotchet, the forms of vine training (Gobelet, Guyot, Cordon, Sylvoz, Casarsa, free cordon, cordon free mobilized, Pergolas, System rays or Bellussi, Parrales, GDC, Lyra). The course continues with a discussion of how soil management (machining, chemical weed control, controlled grassing), presents methods for practicing the irrigation of vineyards and fertilization. Then goes on to deal with the microclimate of the vineyard induced by different types of curtain of leaves, interventions to green during the growing season of the vine (flaking, suckering, topping, bunch thinning). The course ends with the presentation of the harvest mode according to the type of grape maturation reached (technological, phenolic, aromatic, etc.).
Tutorials (2CFU): practical exercises are carried out in the vineyard and in relation to the time in which phenological are held, we discuss the various aspects of plant-growing, cultivation techniques applied and the reasonableness or otherwise of the operations performed.
Teaching material: notes provided by the teacher at the beginning of the course.
- Fregoni M., 2013. Viticoltura di qualità. Tecniche Nuove Ed., Milano.
- Iland P., Dry P., Proffitt T., Tyerman S., 2011. The Grapevine. From the Science to the Practice of growing vines for wine. Patrick Iland Wine Promotion Pty Ltd. Ed. Adelaide, Australia