Scientific Disciplinary Sector (SSD)
M-FIL/03 - MORAL PHILOSOPHY
Moral philosophy Based on the knowledge of moral philosophy classics and on the main themes of the western philosophical tradition emerging from them, the course also aims to promote the development of the skill to understand philosophical moral texts within their historical-critical framework and a correct hermeneutic approach, the skill to appropriately use a thoroughly philosophical terminology and also to produce personal reflection in order to formulate independent judgements on the genesis, nature and meaning of the addressed issues. Finally, these objectives are also understood in order to develop the ability to continue studies in a Master’s degree, and the ability to communicate philosophical contents to specialists and non-specialists alike.
The issue of the origin of evil and the search for the meaning of good: aspects of the thoughts of Leibniz and Kant in comparison.
It will be proposed an interpretation and discussion from the point of view of moral philosophy on the issue of the origin of evil and on the search for the meaning of good and again on the choice of the good by the human being in the thought of Leibniz and in that of Kant, taking as a reference for Leibniz the "Essays of Theodicy" and for Kant the "Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason". To this end, these points will be developed, among other things:
- The Leibnizian doctrine of harmony and the problem of the origin of evil;
- The distinction between metaphysical evil, physical evil and moral evil according to Leibniz;
- The distinction between absolute necessity and hypothetical necessity and the question of freedom;
- The Leibnizian reflection on the wisdom, goodness and will of God in response to the thought of Pierre Bayle;
- The choice of good: the meaning of the "best" and the impossibility of "indifference" according to Leibniz;
- Leibnizian optimism and the vision of the whole as a source of understanding;
- The Leibnizian discussion of free will;
- The disposition to good in human nature and the issue of the origin of evil according to Kant;
- The struggle between the good principle and the evil principle "for lordship over man" according to Kant.
Mandatory Reference Texts
1) Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Saggi di Teodicea sulla bontà di Dio, sulla libertà dell’uomo, sull’origine del male, nuova edizione italiana a cura di Vittorio Mathieu, traduzione dal francese, saggio introduttivo, apparati e note di Vittorio Mathieu, Edizioni San Paolo, Cinisello Balsamo (Milano) 1994, Parte Prima, Parte Seconda e Parte Terza (pages 191-490 of the mentioned italian translation). ISBN 88-215-2815-4. Students who encounter difficulties in finding the aforementioned edition of Leibniz's "Saggi di Teodicea" (“Essays of Theodicy”) can use another Italian translation of the same work, as long as it contains in its entirety, i.e. not only in anthological form, the three Parts of the “Essays of Theodicy" indicated above that is: the First Part in all its paragraphs, from § 1 to § 106 inclusive; the Second Part in all its paragraphs, from § 107 to § 240 inclusive; the Third Part in all its paragraphs, from § 241 to § 417 inclusive.
2) Vittorio Mathieu, Introduzione a Leibniz, Laterza, Roma-Bari 2002. ISBN 88-420-0966-0.
3) Immanuel Kant, La religione entro i limiti della sola ragione, traduzione di Alfredo Poggi, introduzione di Marco M. Olivetti Laterza, Roma-Bari 2004 (fifth reprint: 2018), pages V-XLV, 1-97 and 229-232. ISBN 978-88-420-7296-6.
4) Marco M. Olivetti, Introduzione a Kant, La religione entro i limiti della sola ragione, cit., pp. V-XLV (this is the introductory essay of the aforementioned edition of Kant's "Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason"). ISBN 978-88-420-7296-6.
5) Conceptual schemes of lessons by e-learning: after each lesson a short written conceptual summary of that lesson will be loaded on the e-learning platform of the University.
The reference texts here above are mandatory for both attending and non-attending students.
The teaching methods consist of lectures during which analysis, comment and discussion of the reference texts will take place, thus addressing the program contents in the perspective of the learning outcomes.
Visualizza la bibliografia con Leganto, strumento che il Sistema Bibliotecario mette a disposizione per recuperare i testi in programma d'esame in modo semplice e innovativo.
The exam consists, both for the attending and for the non-attending students, of an oral exam concerning the program and the reading list above indicated as “mandatory reference texts”.
In order to pass the exam, students will have to demonstrate that they have achieved the learning outcomes; therefore the following will be verified:
1) The knowledge and the interpretative skills acquired with respect to the mandatory reference texts and to the teaching program, in the light of a valid critical and hermeneutic approach to the texts themselves and to the addressed issues;
2) Skill to use a thoroughly philosophical terminology;
3) Skill to develop a reflection in the perspective of moral philosophy on the addressed issues.
The grade will be expressed in thirtieths.