History of the French language /Storia della lingua francese 2
Scientific Disciplinary Sector (SSD)
L-LIN/04 - LANGUAGE AND TRANSLATION – FRENCH
II semestre (Lingue e letterature straniere) dal Feb 14, 2022 al May 28, 2022.
By the end of the course, the students will be able to - master the methodology enabling them to study the French language diachronically starting from historical documents such as dictionaries and encyclopaedias, accessible in various formats; - master knowledge on the history of publishing and press in French and its relationship with the history of the language, for instance: the evolution of official standard for spelling, the role of institutional dictionaries in establishing the standard, lexical innovations coming from press and journalism.
The course deals with the birth and evolution of the French language, with particular attention to the history of publishing and printing in France. The main features of French in diachrony will be examined in some main texts, such as dictionaries, encyclopedias and newspapers.
The course has two focuses, one general, one specific:
• General focus : a survey of the evolution of the French language from the Middle Ages to the classical period
• Specific focus :
-the evolution of spelling and writing systems.
- the metalexicographical study of the role of dictionaries and encyclopaedias in the evolution of French as a language of science.
- The French of journalism : the case of the French Revolution
Goals of general focus lectures :
Examples of French texts in the form of extracts will be analysed as witnesses to the state of the language at a particular period.
1. Chrétien de Troyes : Le chevalier de la charrette
2. Louis Meigret: spelling at the moment of the invention of the printing press
3. François Rabelais : Gargantua, Le tiers livre
4. Denis Diderot : Writings on science
5. The language of the French press at the time of the French Revolution
• Goals of the specific focus (metalexicographical) lectures :
understand, analyse, interpret historical French dictionaries
- account for the emergence of scientific and technical French
- understand the linguistic issues at stake in the dictionaries analysed
- understand the social issues at stake in the dictionaries analysed
- understand the underlying attitudes towards language issues, in particular
o technical and scientific language
o outside influences on French
Dictionaries studied from their on-line presentations include:
Furetière (1690) Dictionnaire universel
Dictionnaire de l’Académie française, first edition (1694)
Dictionnaire “Trévoux” (1704 - 1771)
Diderot, d’Alembert (1751 - 1779), Encyclopédie
Panckoucke (1782 - 1832), Encyclopédie méthodique
Féraud : Dictionnaire critique (1787) ; Supplément
Webites used :
• Musée virtuel des dictionnaires (LDI, Cergy) https://dictionnaires.u-cergy.fr/
• Dictionnaires d’autrefois (Atilf, Nancy) http://artfl.atilf.fr/dictionnaires/index.html
• Dictionnaire universel (Furetière) : http://www.furetière.eu/
• Dictionnaire critique (Féraud) : http://www.cnrtl.fr/dictionnaires/anciens/feraud/index.php
• Édition Numérique Collaborative et CRitique de l’²Encyclopédie (Académie des sciences) http://enccre.academie-sciences.fr/encyclopedie/
• La Bouche de fer (French Revolutionary newspaper) : https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k85267n/f6.image
Visualizza la bibliografia con Leganto, strumento che il Sistema Bibliotecario mette a disposizione per recuperare i testi in programma d'esame in modo semplice e innovativo.
The final exam is oral.
Students attending the courses will be invited to make two oral presentations during the semester and a written presentation on an article taken from the Encyclopédie. This presentation will highlight the evolution of lexicographic practices as well as that of language. These activities will constitute a valid dossier for the final exam.
For non-attending students there is a final oral exam on the entire program.