Scientific Disciplinary Sector (SSD)
L-ART/02 - HISTORY OF MODERN ART
Being able to read the architectural forms and recognize the stylistic characteristics of the individual authors.
The course follows a diachronic itinerary of art history from the Late Gothic to Neoclassicism. It addresses, as a premise, a reflection on periodization, starting from the Romanesque and Gothic.
The student will be able to choose only some of the topics listed here on the basis of personal interests, but he must demonstrate that he has learned the entire path in its general lines.
The criteria for choosing the topics and their number will be specified later.
Reference point for the preparation are the notes of the lessons, a manual to be agreed and some assessments for which it will be sufficient to start surfing the internet.
Henry Focillon, a vision on Western art. The Romanesque. Why Romanesque. Meaning of the term. Historical context. Geography and chronology
The Gothic. Why gothic. New religious orders. Feudalism and monarchies. Religious mentality (Abbot Suger's aesthetics and Bernardo di Chiaravalle).
1. Late Gothic or International Gothic: the art of the autumn of the Middle Ages according to the definition of Huizinga. Before that: hints of art at the papal court of Avignon. The courts and their contacts. European centers of the international Gothic (the courts); Italian centers. University of Paris, Bohemia, the Visconti court between Milan and Pavia and its European cultural range. The case of the Milan Cathedral.
Art of the Alpine Arch; the master of Thon; Weicher Stil.
Persistence of the late Gothic in Europe.
2. Painting in the Flanders. Geography and history: the Duchy of Burgundy. The sculptures by Claus Sluter.
The first generation of the “Flemish school”, the protagonists: Jan Van Eyck, Rogier van der Weyden and Robert Campin. The second generation: Petrus Christus and Dieric Bouts. The latest generation of "primitives": Hans Memling and Hugo van der Goes.
Flemish painting and Italian painting, the presences, the centers, the influences.
The perception of the Florentine Renaissance in Europe
Aragonese Naples, foreign presences; Antonello da Messina and Flemish art.
Pedro Berruguete: a Spaniard of Flemish inspiration in Urbino (1474-1482).
Just of Ghent; a Flemish in Urbino: (1473-1475).
3. German Renaissance painters, with attention to the masters of woodcut and intaglio art and to the diffusion and influence of their graphic work: Martin Schongauer and Albrecht Dürer. Other protagonists: Hans Holbein, Lucas Cranach, Albrecht Altdorfer, Mattias Grünewald, Hans Baldung-Grien. An example of the great season of wooden sculpture: Tilman Riemenschneider (the Rothenburg altar).
The French fifteenth century, with particular regard for Jean Fouquet and his trip to Italy.
4. Modern manner in the Veneto and the foreign presences: the stays of Albrecht Dürer, the relationships with Giovanni Bellini, give and take, with particular regard for Giorgione. The altarpiece of the Madonna del Rosario for San Bartolomeo, the ensemble of emblematic values of an historical moment.
Hieronymus Bosch, with attention to his collecting fortune in Venice. The interpretative problematic, especially of religious nature, of his work.
Pieter Bruegel the Elder and his journey to Italy (1551).
5. Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raffaello, Sebastiano del Piombo: occasional European stays and commissions, their "universal" fortune. 1527 Sack of Rome, the diaspora of artists.
Fontainebleau: the project by Francis I.
6. Titian and the Habsburgs, Titian and the other European courts.
Mannerism as a European phenomenon. Foreign Mannerists in Florence; Giambologna and Giovanni Stradanus,
Art at the court of Rudolf II.
7. Protestantism and art, post-Tridentine art. The principles and different approaches to the figurative arts, regarding the function, contents, attitudes and mentality of the recipients and collectors.
The basic premises: the Carracci, naturalism and the classical ideal, Annibale Carracci and the Farnese Gallery, classicism.
Caravaggio, painting of reality.
8. The Baroque: general concepts. Rome as a European landmark. Bernini and the late trip to France.
The protagonists of seventeenth-century European painting, between classicism, Caravaggism and Baroque.
England: Inigo Jones, Palladio's fortune and Neopalladianism.
Foreword on the history and geography of the southern and northern Netherlands.
Southern Netherlands: Rubens, his stay in Italy, his extraordinary European fortune; Anton van Dyck, between Flanders and England, with particular regard to portraiture and his presence in Genoa and Rome.
Northern Netherlands, historical and confessional context, collecting history: Rembrandt van Rijn, Jan Vermeer.
France: the Caravaggeschi. The protagonists Nicolas Poussin, Claude Lorrain, Simon Vouet, Louis Le Nain, Georges de la Tour, Charles Le Brun
Spain, the Siglo de Oro. Between Seville and Madrid.
Premise. El Greco and his European path, an extraordinary case of late Mannerist persistence.
Premise: Jusepe de Ribera, Spagnoletto in Naples.
The protagonists: Diego Velàsquez, Francisco de Zurbaràn, Bartolomé Esteban Murillo. Hints to Juan Sánchez Cotán, still life, to Juan Bautista Maíno.
9. Rococo: French phenomenon, European emulation.
Painting in France: Jean-Antoine Watteau, Jean-Honoré Fragonard, François Boucher, Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin, Jean-Étienne Liotard
English painting: William Hogarth; conversation piece (the group portrait genre), Joshua Reynolds, Thomas Gainsborough.
10. The fortune in Europe of the Venetian painters of the eighteenth century.
Marco and Sebastiano Ricci, Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini, Rosalba Carriera.
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo in Würzburg and Madrid.
Canaletto, landscape painting, his European collecting fortune, his English stay.
11. Neoclassicism. The poetics, general concepts.
Antonio Canova, profile; his great clients: France, England, Germany, Austria.
Anton Raphael Mengs; Jacques-Louis David and history painting; Berthel Thorvaldsen.
To conclude: Francisco Goya.
The preparation for the exam is based on the course notes and on the study of a manual where identifying the chapters that deal with the topics listed above and, if necessary, expanding that information.
During the introductory lesson the most appropriate manuals will be recommended.
Teaching methods: Lessons with projection of images, then made available to the student.
Exam methods: written
Students can take the exam in a single written test. At their choice, however, they can divide the exam into several sessions, by sending an e-mail communication of the chosen exam program in time to the professor.